Cognitive dissonance: cognitive dissonance is an internal tension related to a person's system of thoughts, beliefs, emotions and attitudes, when several of these contradict each other. This contradiction generates discomfort that the learner wishes to resolve by changing attitudes or opinions.
Constructivist approach and socio-constructivist approach: constructivism is a theory of learning developed by Piaget in reaction to the behaviourism that limited learning to the stimulus-response association. It is based on the premise that the learner's knowledge is not a copy of reality, but a model that is built up over time, and is therefore led to evolve. The person learns from a previous conception, which he renews according to the pedagogical situations in which he finds himself.
In the socio-constructivist approach, developed more particularly by Vygotsky, the construction of knowledge takes place in a social framework, through social interactions.
Mind map: a mind map is a mental map that visually represents the associative path of thought.
Institutionalization: during institutionalization, the educator recognizes the learning achieved during the previously proposed pedagogical situations (a situation-problem, a debate) and assigns them a status of knowledge. This stage thus makes it possible to validate the knowledge acquired, to manage uncertainties (by agreeing on the work accomplished) and to build a common culture within the group of pupils.
Problem situation: a problem situation is provocative according to the main obstacles to overcome. We consider in Anicare the definition of a problem situation in a wide manner: it is a pedagogical activity related to the development of a task designed to help the student discover solutions to a problem. Solving the problem should lead to the acquisition of new skills. The problem situation can be: a real case study, a proposal requiring a debate of proof, a philosophical question generating a philosophical debate, a dilemma generating a debate.
Significant professional situation: significant professional situations (SPS) represent the key situations which, when mastered, are sufficient to give an account of all the competencies mobilized in the work.
Socially acute question: this is defined according to three levels of alertness (Legardez & Simonneaux, 2006): (1) liveliness in society: it gives rise to contradictory debates between social actors, mobilizes values and arguments, (2) liveliness in reference knowledge: it mobilizes actors in the scientific and technical fields with an destabilised scientific paradigm conflict, (3) liveliness in school knowledge.
Socio-cognitive conflict: interactions between peers are considered to be at the source of cognitive development provided that they give rise to socio-cognitive conflicts. Social interaction is constructive insofar as it introduces a confrontation between divergent conceptions. The person then becomes aware of his or her own thinking in relation to that of others. He/she is then led to reconsider it.